The Earth is a continually evolving dynamic system, made up internally of rocks of different density and material characteristics subject to different pressures and temperatures. This great lack of internal homogeneity causes forces to develop in the layers nearer the surface, which tend to rebalance the system by pushing the masses of rock against each other, deforming them. The earthquakes are an expression and a consequence of this continual evolution, which occurs over hundreds of thousands and even millions of years. Most earthquakes occur along the edge of the oceanic and continental plates. The earth's crust is made up of several pieces, called plates. The plates are moved around by the motion of a deeper part of the earth (the mantle) that lies underneath the crust. These plates are always bumping into each other, pulling away from each other, or past each other. The plates usually move at about the same speed that your fingernails grow. Earthquakes usually occur where two plates are running into each other or sliding past each other, in places where there is a Fault Line.
The Guardian® SismAlarm solution consists of an innovative system for the early warning and analysis of earthquakes. Calibrated to a specific alarm threshold, the SismAlarm is able to recognize the primary wave of an earthquake. At least two kinds of waves are propagated from the earthquake source: the primary wave (P-wave), faster and less damaging, and the secondary wave (S-wave), slower but also more destructive. The secondary wave, as the name suggests, is detected after the primary wave and its speed is about 60-70% of the latter. The time interval between the primary wave and the secondary is variable according to the distance from the epicenter, on average, can take up to several seconds before the arrival of the secondary wave, which is sufficient to activate the safety procedure.
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